I'll agree in part with your list. You don't state who provides the "rights". If it is the goverment...well, then the government giveth and the government taketh away. I speak particularly of the last "right" you mention. As it stands now, that right is given by the "creator" not the government.
"Free" schools? Free from manipulation or free in cost? You're not clear on that. If the former, I'm for it. If the later, my property taxes don't know what your talking about. Unfortunately nothing is free ($$$).
As for duties, you left out the duties of elected officials to act in the best interests of the nation, not their wallets. They are doing whatever they want, whether their constituents want it or not. Unfortunately we can not read minds or see into the hearts of those we elect. I would respectfully add, it is my duty to oppose all enemies, foreign and domestic (an oath I actually took, as did any active duty military and veteran). I can understand your last "duty" but I do have reservations. If that were the case we would still be an English colony.
I pay my taxes (like it or not), but when I think of all the questionable things that taxpayers do pay for (remember "Piss Christ") it makes me wince. If people really knew half the nonsense this government funds, and I am speaking of things the majority would dislike, heads would be rolling.
IMO politicians should be paid an amount equal to the average wage of their state or district they represent and it should be a two term max. That might encourage them to improve the job market in their areas. I know the argument, no "smart" people would run for office. Well, they will if if they don't want "dumb" people to run the government. Just look where the "smart" people have gotten us. At least "dumb" people ask questions instead of pretending they know everything. Some common sense would be good for a change, the voters could determine that among the candidates. The president should get all expenses paid and minimum wage, base on a 40 hour work week, so he/she can relate to the people they serve. Give them $25K severance for each term they serve upon leaving office. Politics should be a duty not a career.